About Coconut Oil

Coconut Oil has naturally occuring anti viral properties. Best known are its fatty acids. There are numerous scholarly publications with regards to fatty acids & their effect on lipid-enveloped viruses. Coconut Oil is a natural source of these fatty acids.

In Vitro Effects Of Monolaurin Compounds On Enveloped RNA and DNA Viruses1,John C. Hierholzer 1 Jon J. Kabara 2 1 Respiratory Virology Branch Center for Disease Control Atlanta, Georgia 30333 2 Department of Biomechanics Michigan State University East Lansing, Michigan 48824 1 Use of trade names is for identification only and does not constitute endorsement by the Public Health Service or by the Department of Health and Human Services.

Abstract

Monolaurin alone and monolaurin with tert-butylhydroxyanisole (BHA), methylparaben, or sorbic acid were tested for in vitro virucidal activity against 14 human RNA and DNA enveloped viruses in cell culture. At concentrations of 1% additive in the reaction mixture for 1 h at 23°C, all viruses were reduced in infectivity by >99.9%. Monolaurin with BHA was the most effective virucidal agent in that it removed all measurable infectivity from all of the viruses tested. The compounds acted similarly on all the viruses and reduced infectivity by disintegrating the virus envelope. All rights reserved.

Inactivation and Inhibition of Replication of the Enveloped Bacteriophage φ6 by Fatty AcidsJeffrey A. Sands, Biophysics Laboratories, Physics Department and Molecular Biology Program, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015, Received for publication 10 May 1977, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Oct. 1977, p. 523-528 Copyright 1977 American Society for Microbiology, Vol. 12, No. 4 Printed in U.S.A.

Abstract

The enveloped bacteriophage φ6 has been shown to be an interesting model system for the study of chemical agents that might have specific antiviral effects against lipid-containing mammalian viruses. In this report, we describe two types of antiviral activity exhibited by several fatty acids against bacteriophage φ6. Oleic acid (18:1) and palmitoleic acid (16:1) were potent inactivators of the virus. Treatment with either fatty acid at 50 ,ug/ml at 25 or 0°C for 30 min reduced the virus titer to about 0.1% ofthe initial titer. Oleic acid at a concentration as low as 3 ,ug/ml (.10-2 mM) reduced the virus titer to <1% of the initial titer within 30 min. Ultracentrifugation analyses of 14C-amino acid- and 32P labeled virus treated with oleic acid indicated that the virion is largely disassemble'd by the treatment. Myristic acid (14:0) and palmitic acid (16:0) did not inactivate φ6 at 50 ,ug/ml, but nevertheless did prevent φ6 plaque production. Single-step virus growth experiments in which fatty acid was added at various times before or after infection indicated that it was an early stage of the φ6 replication cycle that was inhibited by the presence of myristic acid and that the inhibition occurred only if the myristic acid concentration in the extracellular growth medium was 10 ,ug/ml. φ6 could attach to its host cell in the presence of myristic acid at 50 ,ug/ml. We conclude that the fatty acids that prevent φ6 replication probably do so by interfering with the entry of the viral genome into the host cell. This report provides the first indication that fatty acids can inactivate and inhibit the replication of a lipid-containing virus. Since fatty acids do not have toxic effects on some cells at the concentrations used here (but see reference 14), it appears that fatty acids should be tested further, using several lipid-containing mammalian viruses, to investigate the possible clinical use of fatty acids as inhibitory agents against certain viruses. All rights reserved.

Inactivation of Lipid-Containing Viruses by Long-Chain Alcohols,

Wallace Snipes,* Stanley Person, Gregory Keller, William Taylor, and Alec Keith, Biophysics Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, Received for publication 9 July 1976. This report describes the inactivation of lipid-containing viruses by several long-chain alcohols. A striking peak in antiviral activity was found for saturated alcohols having chain lengths from 10 to 14 carbons. Viruses having different membrane structure showed different susceptibilities to alcohols having different chain lengths and structural features. Decanol, dodecanol, and tetradecanol readily inactivated herpes simplex virus and the enveloped bacterial virus φ6. The lipid-containing virus PM2 was susceptible to decanol and dodecanol but comparatively unsusceptible to tetradecanol. The branched-chain alcohol phytol, a naturally occurring component of chlorophyll, was active against φ6 and herpes simplex virus but not against PM2. Polyoma virus and the bacteriophage 423-1-a, which do not contain lipids, were not susceptible to inactivation by any of the alcohols tested. Experiments were also carried out to determine the effects of these compounds on cells. At 0.5 mM, decanol lysed human embryonic lung cells, erythrocytes, and the bacterial hosts for φ6 and PM2. Dodecanol, tetradecanol, and phytol at this concentration were less damaging to cells. At 0.05 mM, none of the alcohols caused observable cytopathic effects on human embryonic lung cells, although several of the alcohols at this concentration were active against herpes simplex virus. Our findings suggest that dodecanol, tetradecanol, and phytol may warrant further studies as potential antiviral agents, particularly for topical application to virus-infected areas of the skin. All rights reserved.

Enveloped Virus Inactivation by Fatty Acid Derivatives, J. A. Sands,* P. Landin, D. Auperin, and A. Reinhardt, Biophysics Laboratory, Physics Department and Molecular Biology Program, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015, Received for publication 10 October 1978. The enveloped bacteriophage φ6 has been shown to be a valuable model system for the preliminary screening of compounds that might be expected to inactivate herpes simplex virus and other enveloped mammalian viruses. A variety of fatty acid derivatives that form fluid micelles in aqueous media have been found to be potent inactivators of φ6. The chemical nature of the polar head group, the length of the alkyl chain(s), and the extent and geometry of unsaturation are all important parameters in determining the antiviral effectiveness of this class of compounds.All rights reserved.

Extreme Sensitivity of Enveloped Viruses, Including Herpes Simplex, to Long-Chain Unsaturated Monoglycerides and Alcohols, Jeffrey Sands1, David Auperin, and Wallace Snipes2, Biophysics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015, and Biophysics Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, Received for publication 10 October 1978. Unsaturated monoglycerides and alcohols of chain lengths of 16 or 18 carbons were found to be extremely potent inactivators of two enveloped viruses, herpes simplex virus type 2 and bacteriophage φ6. The lipid-containing bacteriophage PM2 was also inactivated by some of these amphiphilic molecules. Treatment of herpes simplex virus type 2 with these compounds at concentrations as low as 0.2 ,M reduced virus survival to 50% in 30 min, making these agents the most potent inactivators of herpes simplex viruses discovered that are not cytotoxic to mammalian cells. Detailed characterizations of the effects of unsaturated monoglycerides and alcohols on bacteriophages φ6 and PM2 showed that the inactivated φ6 virion remained nearly intact but that PM2 was almost completely disrupted by the inactivating treatment. Some of the compounds inactivate the viruses even at low temperature (0°C). Excess amounts of diglycerides and phospholipids interfere with the inactivating abilities of some of the unsaturated monoglycerides and alcohols against φ6 and PM2. Our findings suggest that the unsaturated monoglycerides and some of the unsaturated alcohols should be further studied as potential antiviral agents, particularly for application to herpesvirus-infected areas of the skin and accessible epithelium. All rights reserved.

Coconut Oil Physical Properties

Coconut oil is a fat consisting of about 90% saturated fat. The oil contains predominantly medium chain triglycerides,[1] with roughly 92% saturated fatty acids, 6% monounsaturated fatty acids, and 2% polyunsaturated fatty acids. Of the saturated fatty acids, coconut oil is primarily 44.6% lauric acid, 16.8% myristic acid , 8.2% palmitic acid and 8% caprylic acid. Although it contains seven different saturated fatty acids in total, its only monounsaturated fatty acid is oleic acid while its only polyunsaturated fatty acid is linoleic acid.[2] 1 Nutrition Facts and Information for Vegetable oil, coconut 2 Nutrient analysis of coconut oil – USDA All rights reserved

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